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Pigeon, Dove (Family: Columbidae) - Wiki
Subject: Pigeon, Dove (Family: Columbidae) - Wiki
Bleeding Heart Pigeon-Luzon Bleeding-heart Dove (Gallicolumba luzonica).jpg
Resolution: 1624x1489 File Size: 828450 Bytes Date: 2006:03:19 02:17:24 Camera: DSC-S60 (SONY) F number: f/2.8 Exposure: 10/250 sec Focal Length: 180/10 Upload Date: 2007:10:29 15:35:12

Pigeon, Dove (Family: Columbidae) - Wiki

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[Photo] Luzon Bleeding-heart Dove (Gallicolumba luzonica); Bleeding Heart Pigeon, "Gallicolumba luzonica". Date 19 March 2006. Photo taken by
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Pigeons and doves constitute the family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, which include some 300 species of near passerine birds. In general parlance the terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably. In ornithological practice, there is a tendency for "dove" to be used for smaller species and "pigeon" for larger ones, but this is in no way consistently applied, and historically the common names for these birds involve a great deal of variation between the term "dove" and "pigeon." This family occurs worldwide, but the greatest variety is in the Indomalaya and Australasia ecozones. The young doves and pigeons are called "squabs."

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. The species commonly referred to just as the "pigeon" is the feral Rock Pigeon, common in many cities.

Their usually flimsy nests are made of sticks, and the two white eggs are incubated by both sexes. Doves feed on seeds, fruit and plants. Unlike most other birds (but see flamingo), the doves and pigeons produce "crop milk," which is secreted by a sloughing of fluid-filled cells from the lining of the crop. Both sexes produce this highly nutritious substance to feed to the young.

Systematics and evolution
This family is a highly coherent group with no members showing obvious links with other bird families, or vice versa. The dodo and solitaires are clearly related, as discussed below, but equally lacking in obvious links with other bird families. The limited fossil record also consists only of unequivocal Columbidae species. Links to the sandgrouse and parrots have been suggested, but resemblances to the first group are due to convergent evolution and the second depend on the parrot-like features of the Tooth-billed Pigeon. However, the distinctive features of that bird seem to have arisen from its specialized diet rather than a real relationship to the parrots.

The family is usually divided into five subfamilies, but this is probably inaccurate. For example, the American ground and quail doves which are usually placed in the Columbinae seem to be two distinct subfamilies. The order presented here follows Baptista et al. (1997) with some updates (Johnson & Clayton 2000, Johnson et al. 2001, Shapiro et al. 2002).

Note that the arrangement of genera and naming of subfamilies is in some cases provisional because analyzes of different DNA sequences yield results that differ, often radically, in the placement of certain (mainly Indo-Australian) genera. This ambiguity, probably caused by Long branch attraction, seems to confirm that the first pigeons evolved in the Australasian region, and that the "Treronidae" and allied forms (crowned and pheasant pigeons, for example) represent the earliest radiation of the group.

As the Dodo and Rodrigues Solitaire are in all likelihood part of the Indo-Australian radiation that produced the 3 small subfamilies mentioned above with the fruit-doves and -pigeons (including the Nicobar Pigeon), they are here included as a subfamily Raphinae, pending better material evidence of their exact relationships.

Exacerbating these issues, columbids are not well represented in the fossil record. No truly primitive forms have been found to date. The genus Gerandia which most likely belongs to the Columbinae has been described from Early Miocene deposits of France. Apart from that, all other fossils belong to extant genera. For these, and for the considerable number of more recently extinct prehistoric species, see the respective genus accounts.

A list of all the species, sortable by common and scientific name, is at list of Columbidae species

Subfamily Columbinae - typical pigeons & doves

Genus Columba including Aplopelia - Old World pigeons (33-34 living species, 2-3 recently extinct)

Genus Streptopelia including Stigmatopelia and Nesoenas - turtledoves (14-18 living species)

Genus Patagioenas - American pigeons; formerly included in Columba (17 species)

Genus Macropygia
Barred Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia unchall
Slender-billed Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia amboinensis
Brown Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia phasianella
Dusky Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia magna
Andaman Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia rufipennis
Philippine Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia tenuirostris
Ruddy Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia emiliana
Black-billed Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia nigrirostris
Mackinlay's Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia mackinlayi
Little Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia ruficeps

Genus Reinwardtoena (3 species)

Genus Turacoena (2 species)

Subfamily N.N. - Bronzewings and relatives

Genus Turtur - African wood-doves (5 species; tentatively placed here)

Genus Oena - Namaqua Dove (tentatively placed here)

Genus Chalcophaps (2 species)

Genus Henicophaps (2 species)

Genus Phaps (3 species)

Genus Ocyphaps - Crested Pigeon

Genus Geophaps (3 species)

Genus Petrophassa - rock-pigeons (2 species)

Genus Geopelia (3-5 species)

Subfamily Leptotilinae - Zenaidine and quail-doves

Genus Zenaida (7 species)

Genus Ectopistes - Passenger Pigeon (extinct; 1914)

Genus Leptotila

White-tipped Dove, Leptotila verreauxi
White-faced Dove, Leptotila megalura
Grey-fronted Dove, Leptotila rufaxilla
Grey-headed Dove, Leptotila plumbeiceps
Pallid Dove, Leptotila pallida
Brown-backed Dove, Leptotila battyi
Grenada Dove, Leptotila wellsi
Caribbean Dove, Leptotila jamaicensis
Grey-chested Dove, Leptotila cassini
Ochre-bellied Dove, Leptotila ochraceiventris
Tolima Dove, Leptotila conoveri

Genus Geotrygon - quail-doves
Purplish-backed Quail-dove, Geotrygon lawrencii
Veracruz Quail-dove, Geotrygon carrikeri
Costa Rica Quail-dove, Geotrygon costaricensis
Russet-crowned Quail-dove, Geotrygon goldmani
Sapphire Quail-dove, Geotrygon saphirina
Grey-headed Quail-dove, Geotrygon caniceps
Hispaniolan Quail-dove, Geotrygon (caniceps} leucometopius
Crested Quail-dove, Geotrygon versicolor
Rufous-breasted Quail-dove, Geotrygon chiriquensis
Olive-backed Quail-dove, Geotrygon veraguensis
White-faced Quail-dove, Geotrygon albifacies
Lined Quail-dove, Geotrygon linearis
White-throated Quail-dove, Geotrygon frenata
Key West Quail-dove, Geotrygon chrysia
Bridled Quail-dove, Geotrygon mystacea
Violaceous Quail-dove, Geotrygon violacea
Ruddy Quail-dove, Geotrygon Montana

Genus Starnoenas
Blue-headed Quail-dove, Starnoenas cyanocephala
Subfamily Columbininae - American ground doves

Genus Columbina
Common Ground Dove, Columbina passerina
Plain-breasted Ground Dove, Columbina minuta
Ecuadorian Ground Dove, Columbina buckleyi
Ruddy Ground Dove, Columbina talpacoti
Picui Dove, Columbina picui
Croaking Ground Dove, Columbina cruziana
Blue-eyed Ground Dove, Columbina cyanopis

Genus Claravis
Blue Ground Dove, Claravis pretiosa
Purple-winged Ground Dove, Claravis godefrida
Maroon-chested Ground-dove, Claravis mondetoura

Genus Metriopelia
Bare-faced Ground Dove, Metriopelia ceciliae
Moreno's Ground Dove, Metriopelia morenoi
Black-winged Ground Dove, Metriopelia melanoptera
Golden-spotted Ground Dove, Metriopelia aymara

Genus Scardafella - possibly belongs into Columbina
Inca Dove, Scardafella inca
Scaled Dove, Scardafella squammata

Genus Uropelia
Long-tailed Ground Dove, Uropelia campestris...
Subfamily N.N. - Indopacific ground doves

Genus Gallicolumba (16-17 living species, 3-4 recently extinct)

Genus Trugon
Thick-billed Ground Pigeon, Trugon terrestris

Subfamily Otidiphabinae - Pheasant Pigeon

Genus Otidiphaps - Pheasant Pigeon

Subfamily Didunculinae - Tooth-billed Pigeon

Genus Didunculus
Tooth-billed Pigeon, Didunculus strigirostris
Tongan Tooth-billed Pigeon, Didunculus placopedetes - prehistoric

Subfamily Gourinae - crowned pigeons

Genus Goura

Subfamily N.N. ("Treroninae") - green and fruit-doves and imperial pigeons

Genus Ducula - imperial-pigeons
Pink-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula poliocephala
White-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula forsteni
Mindoro Imperial Pigeon, Ducula mindorensis
Grey-headed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula radiata
Grey-necked Imperial Pigeon, Ducula carola
Green Imperial Pigeon, Ducula aenea
White-eyed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula perspicillata
Blue-tailed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula concinna
Pacific Imperial Pigeon, Ducula pacifica
Micronesian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula oceanica
Polynesian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula aurorae
Nukuhiva Imperial Pigeon, Ducula galeata
Red-knobbed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula rubricera
Spice Imperial Pigeon, Ducula myristicivora
Purple-tailed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula rufigaster
Cinnamon-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula basilica
Finsch's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula finschii
Shining Imperial Pigeon, Ducula chalconota
Island Imperial Pigeon, Ducula pistrinaria
Pink-headed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula rosacea
Christmas Imperial Pigeon, Ducula whartoni
Grey Imperial Pigeon, Ducula pickeringii
Peale's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula latrans
Chestnut-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula brenchleyi
Vanuatu Imperial Pigeon, Ducula bakeri
New Caledonian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula goliath
Pinon's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula pinon
Bismarck Imperial Pigeon, Ducula melanochroa
Collared Imperial Pigeon, Ducula mullerii
Zoe's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula zoeae
Mountain Imperial Pigeon, Ducula badia
Dark-backed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula lacernulata
Timor Imperial Pigeon, Ducula cineracea
Pied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula bicolor
Torresian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula spilorrhoa
White Imperial Pigeon, Ducula luctuosa

Genus Lopholaimus - Topknot Pigeon

Genus Hemiphaga
Kerer?? Hemiphaga novaseelandiae
Parea Hemiphaga chathamensis

Genus Cryptophaps
Sombre Pigeon, Cryptophaps poecilorrhoa

Genus Gymnophaps - mountain-pigeons
Papuan Mountain-pigeon Gymnophaps albertisii
Long-tailed Mountain-pigeon Gymnophaps mada
Pale Mountain-pigeon Gymnophaps solomonensis

Genus Ptilinopus - fruit-doves (some 50 living species, 1-2 recently extinct)

Genus Natunaornis - Viti Levu Giant Pigeon (prehistoric)

Genus Drepanoptila
Cloven-feathered Dove, Drepanoptila holosericea

Genus Alectroenas - blue pigeons
Madagascar Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas madagascariensis
Comoro Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas sganzini
Seychelles Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas pulcherrima
Farquhar Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas sp. (extinct)
Mauritius Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas nitidissima (extinct)
Rodrigues Pigeon "Alectroenas" rodericana (extinct; probably distinct genus)

Subfamily Raphinae - didines

Genus Raphus - Dodo (extinct; late 17th century)

Genus Pezophaps - Rodrigues Solitaire (extinct; c.1730)

Placement unresolved

Genus Caloenas
Nicobar Pigeon, Caloenas nicobarica
Greater Maned Pigeon, Caloenas canacorum (prehistoric)
Liverpool Pigeon, "Caloenas" maculata - extinct; probably distinct genus

Genus Treron - green pigeons
Cinnamon-headed Green Pigeon, Treron fulvicollis
Little Green Pigeon, Treron olax
Pink-necked Green Pigeon, Treron vernans
Orange-breasted Green Pigeon, Treron bicincta
Pompadour Green Pigeon, Treron pompadora
Thick-billed Green Pigeon, Treron curvirostra
Grey-cheeked Green Pigeon, Treron griseicauda
Sumba Green Pigeon, Treron teysmannii
Flores Green Pigeon, Treron floris
Timor Green Pigeon, Treron psittacea
Large Green Pigeon, Treron capellei
Yellow-footed Green Pigeon, Treron phoenicoptera
Bruce's Green Pigeon, Treron waalia
Madagascar Green Pigeon, Treron australis
African Green Pigeon, Treron calva
Pemba Green Pigeon, Treron pembaensis
Sao Tome Green Pigeon, Treron sanctithomae
Pin-tailed Green Pigeon, Treron apicauda
Sumatran Green Pigeon, Treron oxyura
Yellow-vented Green Pigeon, Treron seimundi
Wedge-tailed Green Pigeon, Treron sphenura
White-bellied Green Pigeon, Treron sieboldii
Whistling Green Pigeon, Treron formosae

Genus Phapitreron - brown doves
White-eared Brown Dove, Phapitreron leucotis
Amethyst Brown Dove, Phapitreron amethystina
Dark-eared Brown Dove, Phapitreron cinereiceps

Genus Leucosarcia - Wonga Pigeon

Genus Microgoura - Choiseul Crested Pigeon (extinct; early 20th century)

Genus Dysmoropelia
St Helena Dove, Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos (extinct)

Genus indeterminate
Henderson Island Archaic Pigeon, Columbidae gen. et sp. indet. (prehistoric)
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wedge-tailed green pigeon
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