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Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) - Wiki
Subject: Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) - Wiki
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Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) - Wiki

Clouded Leopard
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[Photo] Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa). Photo by Nancy Vandermey of EFBC"s Feline Conservation Center, Rosamond CA.
Copyright (C) Nancy Vandermey
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

The Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) is a medium-sized cat, 55 to 110 cm (2 ft to 3 ft 6 in) long and weighing between 15 and 23 kg (33 to 50 lb). It has a tan or tawny coat, and is distinctively marked with large, irregularly-shaped, dark-edged ellipses which are said to be shaped like clouds, hence both its common and original scientific name. It is found in southern China, the eastern Himalayas, north-east India and south-east Asia. The Bornean Clouded Leopard, Neofelis diardi, is a separate species found on the Sumatra, Borneo and the Batu Islands. Because of their distinct skull structure, the two species are considered sufficiently different to be the only members of their genus.

Physical characteristics
The Clouded Leopard has a large build and, proportionately, the longest canine teeth (2 in) of any living feline. It is also believed that the Clouded Leopard is a descendant of the Saber Tooth cat, which existed before/during the Ice Age. These characteristics led early researchers to speculate that it preyed on large land-dwelling mammals. However, while remarkably little is known about the natural history and behavioral habits of this species in the wild, it is now thought that its primary prey includes arboreal and terrestrial mammals, particularly gibbons, macaques, and the Proboscis Monkey, supplemented by other small mammals, deer, birds, porcupines, and domestic livestock. The Clouded Leopard has 5 toes like most big cats.

In conjunction with the fact that some of its prey lives in trees, the Clouded Leopard is an excellent climber. Short, flexible legs, large paws, and keen claws combine to make it very sure-footed. The Clouded Leopard can possess a tail as long as its body, further aiding in balance. Surprisingly, the cat can climb while hanging upside-down under branches and descend tree trunks head-first.

Range, habitat and taxonomy
It ranges through southern China, the eastern Himalayas, north-east India, and south-east Asia. It is thought to be extinct in Taiwan. The last confirmed sighting of a Clouded Leopard was in 1989 when the skin from a small leopard was found in the Taroko area and this subspecies was characterised by its relatively much shorter tail.

Preferred habitat is tropical and subtropical forests at altitudes up to about 2,000 meters (6,500 ft), however it is sometimes found in mangrove swamps and grassland. It lives in temperatures from 65 to 120 degrees.

The Clouded Leopard, despite its name, is not closely related to the Leopard.

For fifty years the Clouded Leopard was regarded as a monotypic genus with four subspecies:

Neofelis nebulosa brachyura: Taiwan (presumed extinct in the wild)
Neofelis nebulosa diardi: Borneo, Sumatra, (Java - absent since Neolithic times)
Neofelis nebulosa macrosceloides: Nepal to Myanmar (Burma)
Neofelis nebulosa nebulosa: Southern China to eastern Myanmar

However, recent molecular genetic analyses (mtDNA, nuclear DNA sequences, microsatellite variation, and cytogenetic differences) have revealed that there is a strong case for reclassification and the defining of two distinct species of Clouded Leopard - Neofelis nebulosa (all three subspecies on mainland Asia) and Neofelis diardi (one subspecies on the Indonesian archipelago).

This case for two Clouded Leopard species based on genetic distinction that is equivalent to, or greater than, comparable measures among Panthera species (Lion, Tiger, Leopard, and Jaguar) is also strongly supported by the geographical variation revealed by morphometric analyses of the pelage (coat colour and patterns) between Clouded Leopard in Mainland Asia and in Indonesia (Borneo and Sumatra); again providing a compelling case for reclassification into two distinct species N. nebulosa and N. diardi.

Diet Like most cats the clouded leopard is a carnivore. It's prey are sambar, muntjac, birds, bearded pigs, civet, monkeys, gibbons, squirrels, porcupines, fish, domestic cattle and chicken. Clouded Leopards that are held in captivity also eat eggs and some vegetation.

The Clouded Leopard is a tree dweller, and has a squirrel-like agility like the Margay of South America. In captivity, the Clouded Leopard routinely hangs by its hind legs using its long tail for balance and runs head-first down tree trunks. Little is known about its behaviour in the wild, but it is assumed that it is highly arboreal and that a favoured hunting tactic is to drop on prey from the trees.

The habits and behaviour of the Clouded Leopard in the wild are virtually unknown to man because of the animal's secretive nature. With a lack of evidence for a pack- or pride-society like that of the Lion, it is assumed that it is a generally solitary creature. Certainly it interacts with other Clouded Leopards while engaged in activities relating to mating and rearing young. While it was once assumed that the Clouded Leopard was active only at night, the cat has now been observed during the day.

Females give birth to a litter of 1 to 5 cubs after a gestation period of about 85 to 93 days. Initially, the young are blind and helpless, much like the young of many other cats. Unlike adults, the kittens' spots are "solid"???completely dark rather than dark rings. The young can see within about 10 days of birth, are active within 5 weeks, and probably become independent at about 10 months of age. The Clouded Leopard reaches sexual maturity at two years of age and females are able to bear one litter each year. Adults in captivity have lived as long as 17 years: in the wild, they have an average 11 year lifespan. This gives hope that the Clouded Leopard will be able to increase its numbers with careful management.

Despite these facts, captive breeding programs met with little success in their early stages, largely because the females were frequently killed by aggressive males; largely due to ignorance of courtship activity among these cats in the wild. Normally, the Clouded Leopard is not aggressive. Experience has taught keepers that carefully selected pairs of Clouded Leopards introduced and given opportunities to bond often breed successfully, although this is more art than science and takes great patience to achieve.

Carefully regulated introductions between prospective mating pairs and breeding programmes that take into account the requirements for enriched enclosures with adequate space to permit climbing, provide and stimulate natural behaviour, remove sources of exposure and minimise stress combined with a feeding programme that fulfils the proper dietary requirements have proven more successful in recent years. Cats born in captivity may one day supplement and bolster threatened populations in the wild.

Conservation and threats
Because the Clouded Leopard's habits make it difficult to study, reliable estimates of its population do not exist. Habitat loss due to widespread deforestation and hunting for use in Chinese medicinal preparations are thought to be causing populations of the Clouded Leopard to decline. Only six Clouded Leopards have ever been radio collared and their territorial movements monitored and recorded by scientists using radio telemetry. All of these cats were studied within Thailand. Almost all that is known of the Clouded Leopard today comes from studies of the cats in captivity. Apart from anecdotal accounts very little is known of the Clouded Leopard's natural history, ecology and behaviour in the wild throughout its range.

CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, lists the Clouded Leopard as an Appendix I species. This means that the Clouded Leopard is among the most endangered of all species. CITES prohibits international trade of Appendix I species except for singularly important reasons such as scientific research. The United States also lists the Clouded Leopard under the Endangered Species Act, further prohibiting trade in the animals or any parts or products made from them. In the countries of its native range, hunting of the Clouded Leopard is prohibited, however these bans are poorly enforced.
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