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Gourami (Family: Osphronemidae) - Wiki
Subject: Gourami (Family: Osphronemidae) - Wiki
Colisa lalia Neon Blue 4-dwarf gourami.jpg
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Gourami (Family: Osphronemidae) - Wiki

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[Photo] Neon Blue Dwarf Gourami (Colisa lalia). Photo by Fred Hsu, October 2005.

The gouramis or gouramies are a family, Osphronemidae, of freshwater perciform fishes. The fish are native to Asia, from Pakistan and India to the Malay Archipelago and north-easterly towards Korea.

Many gouramies have an elongated ray at the front of their pelvic fins. Many species show parental care: some are mouthbrooders, and others, like the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), build bubble nests. Currently, about 90 species are recognised, placed in 4 subfamilies and about 15 genera.

The name Polyacanthidae has also been used for this family. Some fish now classified as gouramies were previously placed in family Anabantidae. The subfamily Belontiinae was recently demoted from the family Belontiidae. As labyrinth fishes, gouramis have a lung-like labyrinth organ that allows them to gulp air and use atmospheric oxygen. This organ is a vital innovation for fishes that often inhabit warm, shallow, oxygen-poor water.

There are about 96 species in 15 genera.

Subfamily Belontiinae (combtail gouramis)
Genus Belontia
Malay combtail, Belontia hasselti (Cuvier, 1831).
Ceylonese combtail, Belontia signata (G??nther, 1861).

Subfamily Macropodinae (paradise fish)(pink and blue)
Genus Betta
Akar betta, Betta akarensis Regan, 1910.
Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng, 1994.
Giant betta, Betta anabatoides Bleeker, 1851.
Betta antoni Tan & Ng, 2006.
Betta balunga Herre, 1940.
Slim betta, Betta bellica Sauvage, 1884.
Betta breviobesus Tan & Kottelat, 1998.
Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt, 1992.
Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng, 1994.
Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng, 1994.
Betta chini Ng, 1993.
Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng, 1994.
Betta coccina Vierke, 1979.
Betta compuncta Tan & Ng, 2006.
Betta dimidiata Roberts, 1989.
Betta edithae Vierke, 1984.
Betta enisae Kottelat, 1995.
Betta falx Tan & Kottelat, 1998.
Betta foerschi Vierke, 1979.
Dusky betta, Betta fusca Regan, 1910.
Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat, 1994.
Betta ibanorum Tan & Ng, 2004.
Betta ideii Tan & Ng, 2006.
Crescent betta, Betta imbellis Ladiges, 1975.
Betta krataios Tan & Ng, 2006.
Betta livida Ng & Kottelat, 1992.
Spotfin betta, Betta macrostoma Regan, 1910.
Betta mandor Tan & Ng, 2006.
Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan, 1994.
Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort, 1922.
Betta persephone Schaller, 1986.
Betta pi Tan, 1998.
Spotted betta, Betta picta (Valenciennes, 1846).
Betta pinguis Tan & Kottelat, 1998.
Betta prima Kottelat, 1994.
Forest betta, Betta pugnax (Cantor, 1849).
Betta pulchra Tan & Tan, 1996.
Betta renata Tan, 1998.
Toba betta, Betta rubra Perugia, 1893.
Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat, 1991.
Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng, 1994.
Betta simplex Kottelat, 1994.
Blue betta, Betta smaragdina Ladiges, 1972.
Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat, 1994.
Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens Regan, 1910.
Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat, 1989.
Borneo betta, Betta taeniata Regan, 1910.
Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat, 1994.
Betta tussyae Schaller, 1985.
Betta uberis Tan & Ng, 2006.
Howong betta, Betta unimaculata (Popta, 1905).
Betta waseri Krummenacher, 1986.
Genus Macropodus
Macropodus erythropterus Freyhof & Herder, 2002.
Macropodus hongkongensis Freyhof & Herder, 2002.
Roundtail paradisefish, Macropodus ocellatus (de Beaufort, 1933).
Paradise fish, Macropodus opercularis (Linnaeus, 1758).
Macropodus spechti Schreitm??ller, 1936.
Genus Malpulutta
Spotted gourami, Malpulutta kretseri Deraniyagala, 1937.
Genus Parosphromenus
Parosphromenus allani Brown, 1987.
Parosphromenus anjunganensis Kottelat, 1991.
Parosphromenus bintan Kottelat & Ng, 1998.
Licorice gourami, Parosphromenus deissneri (Bleeker, 1859).
Spiketail gourami, Parosphromenus filamentosus (Oshima, 1919).
Parosphromenus linkei Kottelat, 1991.
Parosphromenus nagyi Schaller, 1985.
Parosphromenus ornaticauda Kottelat, 1991.
Parosphromenus paludicola Tweedie, 1952.
Parosphromenus parvulus Vierke, 1979.
Genus Pseudosphromenus
Spiketail paradisefish, Pseudosphromenus cupanus (Cuvier, 1831).
Pseudosphromenus dayi (Engmann, 1909).
Genus Trichopsis
Pygmy gourami, Trichopsis pumila (Arnold, 1936).
Threestripe gourami, Trichopsis schalleri (Kottelat & Ng, 1994).
Croaking gourami, Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier, 1831).

Subfamily Luciocephalinae (Trichogastrinae)
Genus Colisa
Dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia (Hamilton, 1822).
Thick-Lipped Gourami, Colisa labiosa Day, 1877
Indian Gourami, Colisa fasciata
Genus Ctenops
Frail gourami, Ctenops nobilis McClelland, 1845.
Genus Luciocephalus
Pikehead, Luciocephalus pulcher (Gray, 1830).
Genus Parasphaerichthys
Parasphaerichthys lineatus Britz & Kottelat, 2002.
Eyespot gourami, Parasphaerichthys ocellatus (de Beaufort, 1933).
Genus Polyacanthus
Banded gourami, Polyacanthus fasciatus (Regan, 1910).
Genus Sphaerichthys
Sphaerichthys acrostoma Vierke, 1979.
Chocolate gourami, Sphaerichthys osphromenoides Canestrini, 1860.
Sphaerichthys selatanensis Vierke, 1979.
Sphaerichthys vaillanti Pellegrin, 1930.
Genus Trichogaster
Honey gourami, Trichogaster chuna (Hamilton, 1822).
Pearl gourami, Trichogaster leerii (Bleeker, 1852).
Moonlight gourami, Trichogaster microlepis (G??nther, 1861).
Snakeskin gourami, Trichogaster pectoralis (Regan, 1910).
Three spot gourami (aka blue gourami, opaline gourami, and gold gourami), Trichogaster trichopterus (Pallas, 1770).

Subfamily Osphroneminae (giant gouramis)
Genus Osphronemus
Elephant ear gourami, Osphronemus exodon Roberts, 1994.
Giant gourami, Osphronemus goramy Lac??p??de, 1801.
Giant red tail gourami, Osphronemus laticlavius Roberts, 1992.
Osphronemus septemfasciatus Roberts, 1992.
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Parasphaerichthys ocellatus
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